Sapiens – Yuval Noah Harari

The Best Highlights from Sapiens


By Yuval Noah Harari


The real difference between us and chimpanzees is the mythical glue that binds together large numbers of individuals, families and groups. This glue has made us the masters of creation.


The immense diversity of imagined realities that Sapiens invented, and the resulting diversity of behaviour patterns, are the main components of what we call ‘cultures’. Once cultures appeared, they never ceased to change and develop, and these unstoppable alterations are what we call ‘history’.


There are no gods in the universe, no nations, no money, no human rights, no laws, and no justice outside the common imagination of human beings.


So, monotheism explains order, but is mystified by evil. Dualism explains evil, but is puzzled by order. There is one logical way of solving the riddle: to argue that there is a single omnipotent God who created the entire universe – and He’s evil. But nobody in history has had the stomach for such a belief.


History is something that very few people have been doing while everyone else was ploughing fields and carrying water buckets.


This discrepancy between evolutionary success and individual suffering is perhaps the most important lesson we can draw from the Agricultural Revolution.


One of history’s few iron laws is that luxuries tend to become necessities and to spawn new obligations.


Ever since the Cognitive Revolution, Sapiens have thus been living in a dual reality. On the one hand, the objective reality of rivers, trees and lions; and on the other hand, the imagined reality of gods, nations and corporations. As time went by, the imagined reality became ever more powerful, so that today the very survival of rivers, trees and lions depends on the grace of imagined entities such as the United States and Google.


This is the essence of the Agricultural Revolution: the ability to keep more people alive under worse conditions.


The appearance of new ways of thinking and communicating, between 70,000 and 30,000 years ago, constitutes the Cognitive Revolution.


Don’t just read – absorb and apply! The key to learning is doing. But first, you need to remember the lesson.

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